Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP)

Trans Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) – Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the United States and Vietnam
Background and Negotiations
The goal of the negotiating process of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement is to create a platform for economic integration across the Asia Pacific region. The countries participating in the negotiations of the TPP intend to design a high qualilty, inclusive agreement that lays the foundations for economic growth, the development and generation of employment in the member countries, and that in turn become the basis for the future Asia-Pacific Free Trade Agreement (FTAAP).The negotiating process of the TPP is an initiative developed by the member countries that currently form part of the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement, namely: Brunei Darussalam, Chile, New Zealand, and Singapore. This agreement, also known as P4, was signed in 2005 and has been in force since 2006.The P4 is an open agreement and is why it provides the possibility of accession of third parties with the objective of promoting the creation of a major strategic alliance for the liberalization of trade in the region. In particular, Article 20.6 of the Agreement establishes that other APEC economies or other states can join the Agreement on the terms agreed by the parties. On 4 February 2008, The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) announced that the United States would participate in the negotiations on investment and financial services scheduled for next March between Singapore, Chile, New Zealand and Brunei.On 22 September 2008, the P4 countries and the United States announced the launch of negotiations for the U.S. to join the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement.Later, Australia, Peru and Viet Nam formally expressed their interest to join the negotiations of the comprehensive agreement, that is, the Trans-Pacific Association Agreement, during the Summit of the Asia pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC) in November of 2008 in Lima, Peru.

Approximately a year later, on 14 November 2009 the President of the United States of America announced that he would work with an initial group of seven countries of the TPP, with the goal of forming a regional agreement of „broad membership and the highest standards that represent the effectiveness of an agreement of the 21st Century“.

The first round of negotiations of the Trans Pacific Association Agreement (TPP) was held between Chile, Brunei, New Zealand, Singapore in conjunction with the United States, Peru, Australia and Viet Nam, from 15 to 19 of March 2010, in Melbourne, Australia. The second round of negotiations of the TPP was held in San Francisco, United States on 14 June 2010.  In addition, a mini round of negotiations took place on 20-21 August, in Lima, Peru. The member countries of the Trans-Pacific Partnership met in Brunei Darussalam from 04 to 10 October 2010 for a third round of TPP negotiations. A total of 24 negotiating groups met to address a wide range of issues covered by the agreement. At the same time, Malaysia formally presented its application to join the ongoing negotiations.

The eight countries participating in the process unanimously accepted the accession of Malaysia to the negotiations on 05 October, enabling their actual participation as the ninth member of the TPP negotiation process.

The fourth round of negotiations took place in Auckland, New Zealand from 06 to 10 December 2010.The fifth round was held in Santiago, Chile, on 14-18 February 2011. The sixth round took place in Singapore from 28 March to 01 April. The seventh round took place in Ho Chi Minh, Viet Nam, from 20 to 24 June 2011. The eighth round of negotiations was held in Chicago, United States, from 09 to15 September 2011. The ninth round of negotiations began in Lima, Peru on October 20th, 2011.

On November 12th, during the 2011 annual Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Meetings in Honolulu, U.S.A, Trans-Pacific Partnership countries announced the broad outlines of a Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) agreement. Leaders instructed their negotiating teams to meet in early December 2011 to continue their work, to schedule additional negotiating rounds for 2012, and to continue talks with other trans-Pacific partners that have expressed interest in joining the TPP to facilitate their future participation in the negotiations.

On November 11, 2011, Japan had announced that it will enter into consultations with the nine countries engaged in the TPP in order to explore the possibility of joining those negotiations. Mexico also expressed interest in participating in the TPP negotiations. On November 13, 2011 Canada expressed its intent to enter into formal consultations with TPP members to discuss Canada’s possible participation in the negotiations.

The tenth round of negotiations was held in Kuala Lampur, Malaysia, from 05 to 09 December 2011. In February 2012, Costa Rica announced possible involvement in the TPP negotiating process. The eleventh round took place in Melbourne, Australia, from 03 to 09 February 2012.

On 18 June 2012, the President of the United States announced that the countries negotiating the TPP agreement have extended an invitation to Mexico to join the TPP negotiations. In addition, on 19 June 2012, Canada was also extended an invitation.

Progress in the Trans-Pacific partnership talks continued in the 14th round of TPP negotiations that ended in Leesburg, United States on September 15, 2012. TPP negotiators met in November. The 15th round took place in Auckland, New Zealand, from 03 to 12 December 2012. The 16th round of negotiations was held in Singapore from 04 to 13 March 2013. In April, in Surabaya, Indonesia, trade ministers of TPP member countries met to chart a path forward on outstanding issues for the conclusion of negotiations and the entry of Japan to the agreement.

On 24 April 2013, the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) announced that the U.S. Administration notified Congress of its intent to include Japan in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) negotiations.

The seventeenth round of TPP negotiations took place from 15 to 24 May 2013, in Lima, Peru. The 18th round of TPP negotiations was held on 15-25 July 2013, in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. The 19th round of TPP negotiations was held from August 22-30, in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei. On October 3-4, 2013, Trade Ministers from TPP participating countries met to further advance the TPP negotiations. Trade Ministers and Heads of Delegation from TPP participating countries held a four-day Ministerial meeting in Singapore, from 07-10 December 2013.

Documents relating to the negotiations
17-25 February 2014 Singapore. Meeting of Trade Ministers and Chiefs of Negotiation from TPP participating countries ESPPDF New!
07-10 December 2013 Singapore. Trans-Pacific Partnership Ministerial Meeting: Statement of the Ministers and Heads of DelegationPDF
03-04 October 2013 Bali, Indonesia. Trade Ministers from TPP participating countries met to further advance the TPP negotiationsESPPDF
22-30 August 2013 Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam. 19th round of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) negotiationsPDF
Joint Press Statement TPP Ministerial Meeting PDF
25 July 2013 Statement on the 18th Round of Trans-Pacific Partnership Negotiations – Office of the United States Representative (USTR) PDF
15-25 July 2013 Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. 18th round of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) negotiations PDF
24 May 2013 Conclusion of the 17th round of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) negotiations PDF
15-24 May 2013 Lima, Peru. 17th round of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) negotiations PDF
24 April 2013 United States Trade Representative notified Congress of the intent to include Japan in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP)PDF
20 April 2013 Surabaya, Indonesia. Joint Statement of TPP Ministers: Trans-Pacific Partnership Ministers Chart Path Forward on Key Issues and Confirm Next Steps on Japan’s Entry PDF
04-13 March 2013 Singapore. 16th round of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) negotiations PDF
03-12 December 2012 Auckland, New Zealand. 15th round of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) negotiations PDF
12-15 November 2012 Los Cabos, Mexico. Intersessional round of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) negotiationsin SpanishPDF
06-15 September 2012 Leesburg, United States. 14th round of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) negotiations PDF
10 July 2012 Update on the 13th round of Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) negotiationsPDF
10 July 2012 United States Trade Representative notified Congress of the intent to include Canada in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) AgreementPDF
09 July 2012 United States Trade Representative notified Congress of the intent to include Mexico in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) AgreementPDF
02-10 July 2012 San Diego, California, USA. Thirteenth round of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) PDF
19 June 2012 United States and the eight other countries negotiating the TPP Agreement have extended an invitation to Canada to join the TPP negotiations PDF
18 June 2012 United States and the eight other countries negotiating the TPP Agreement have extended an invitation to Mexico to join the TPP negotiations PDF
10-16 May 2012 Dallas, United States. Twelfth round of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) PDF
03-09 March 2012 Melbourne, Australia. Eleventh round of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) PDF
February 2011 Costa Rica interested in participating in TPP negotiations in SpanishPDF
05-09 December 2011 Kuala Lampur, Malaysia. Tenth round of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) PDF
12 November 2011 Honolulu, United States. Trans-Pacific partnership leaders statement PDF
Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Trade Ministers‘ report to leaders PDF
Outlines of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement PDF
12 november 2011 Canada to enter into consultations on possible participation in negotiations PDF
12 november 2011 Mexico interested in participating in TPP negotiations in SpanishPDF
12 November 2011 Japan interested in joining Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement PDF
20 October 2011 Lima, Peru. Ninth round of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) in SpanishPDF
09-15 September 2011 Chicago, United States. Eighth round of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) PDF
21 June 2011 Ho Chi Minh, Viet Nam. Seventh round of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) PDF
27 March-01 April 2011 Singapore. Sixth round of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) in SpanishPDF
14-18 February 2011 Santiago, Chile. Fifth round of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)in SpanishPDF
06-10 December 2010 Auckland, New Zealand. Fourth round of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) PDF
04-10 October 2010 Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei. Third round of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Spanish PDF
05 October 2010 The TPP partners reached consensus on Malaysia’s request to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations PDF
20-21 August 2010 Lima, Peru. Mini-round of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement Spanish PDF
14-18 June 2010 San Francisco, United States. Second round of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) AgreementPDF
        Update Second Round – Depatment of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia PDF
        Report of the second round of negotiations – MINCETUR, Peru Spanish PDF
15-19 March 2010 Melbourne, Australia. First round of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) PDF
       Update First Round – Depatment of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australia PDF
       Report of the first round of negotiations – MINCETUR, Peru Spanish PDF
14 March 2010 Peru announces the launch of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement Spanish PDF
14 November 2009 United States announces intention to engage with the Trans-Pacific PartnershipPDF
26 November 2008 Australia to join efforts to promote free trade in the Asia PacificPDF
23 September 2008 Australia considers participating in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement PDF
22 September 2008 Launch of U.S. negotiations to join the the Trans- Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement PDF
04 February 2008 U.S. to join negotiations on investment and financial services PDF
Source: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Australian Government; Ministerio de Comercio Exterior y Turismo, Perú (MINCETUR); Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR)
Related Articles and Studies
07 December 2009 Congressional Research Service, United States. The Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement. InglésPDF

Sources

Source: SICE – FOREIGN TRADE INFORMATION SYSTEM

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Transpazifische strategische wirtschaftliche Partnerschaft

Die Transpazifische strategische wirtschaftliche Partnerschaft (engl. Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership, kurz TPSEP) bzw. Transpazifische Partnerschaft (engl. Trans-Pacific Partnership, kurzTPP) ist ein Freihandelsabkommen zwischen den Ländern BruneiChileNeuseeland und Singapur. Das Abkommen wurde am 3. Juni 2005 unterzeichnet und trat am 1. Januar 2006 in Kraft. Nach diesen vier Ursprungsunterzeichnern, den Pacific-4, wird es auch als P4-Abkommen (engl. P4 Agreement) bezeichnet.

Inhaltsverzeichnis
  • 1 Ziel
  • 2 Mitglieder
  • 3 Geschichte
    Die Transpazifische strategische wirtschaftliche Partnerschaft war ursprünglich unter dem Namen Pacific Three Closer Economic Partnership (P3-CEP) bekannt. Die ersten Verhandlungen zur Errichtung dieser Handelszone wurden 2002 auf dem APEC-Gipfel in Los Cabos, Mexiko durch den chilenischen Präsidenten Ricardo Lagos, den Premierminister Singapurs, Goh Chok Tong sowie die neuseeländische Premierministerin Helen Clark begonnen. Brunei nahm erst seit der fünften Gesprächsrunde im April 2005 voll an den Verhandlungen teil.Im Februar 2008 erklärten die Vereinigten Staaten ihr Interesse, mit den TPP-Mitgliedern Gespräche über die Handelsliberalisierung für Finanzdienstleistungen führen zu wollen, im September 2008 konkretisierte die US-Handelsvertreterin Susan C. Schwab ein Interesse der USA an Beitrittsverhandlungen mit den vier TPP-Staaten, deren erste Runde für das Frühjahr 2009 avisiert wurde.Im November 2008 kündigten Australien, Vietnam und Peru an, der TPP beitreten zu wollen, im Oktober 2010 gab Malaysia bekannt, ebenfalls in Beitrittsverhandlungen mit der TPP zu stehen. Interesse an einer Mitgliedschaft wurde auch von Japan und den Philippinen geäußert.Infolge der Amtseinführung von Barack Obama im Januar 2009 wurden die Beitrittsverhandlungen mit den USA zunächst verschoben. Im November 2009 bekräftigte Obama jedoch das Interesse der USA an der Transpazifischen Partnerschaft. Im Dezember 2009 erklärte der neue US-Handelsbeauftragte Ron Kirk vor dem Kongress, dass Obama mit der TPP Verhandlungen mit dem Ziel einer „breiten regionalen Partnerschaft“ führen wolle.Seit dieser Ankündigung wurden drei Runden von Verhandlungen abgehalten. Die erste Runde fand im März 2010 in Melbourne statt, die zweite im Juni 2010 in San Francisco und die dritte im Oktober 2010 in Brunei
  • 4 Kritik und Proteste gegen TPP
  • 5 TPP-Kommission
  • 6 Weblinks
  • 7 Einzelnachweise

Quelle: wiki


Die neuen Herren der Pampa

China kauft sich in Südamerikas Ökonomie ein

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Die Volksrepublik China verfügt über große Geldreserven und Südamerika über zahlreiche Rohstoffvorkommen.
Einfallstor für chinesische Investitionen waren Fischfang und Eisengewinnung in Peru. In Venezuela ist China bei der Erdölförderung im Orinoco-Delta dabei.
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Bolivien hilft die asiatische Großmacht mit Technologie und soll dafür Zugang zu Erdöl, Lithium und Gold erhalten. In Brasilien werden Tiefseebohrungen finanziert, in Chile Kupfer aufgekauft. Seit Kurzem investieren Chinesen auch in Argentinien. Dort sind sie an zwei Erdölgesellschaften und einer Eisenmine beteiligt und wollen im großen Stil Gensoja pflanzen.
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Entwicklungshilfe zahlen die chinesischen Kapitalgeber nicht. In der Öffentlichkeit machen sich die asiatischen Investoren möglichst unsichtbar. In internationalen Organisationen stimmen sie oft mit den Vertretern der Dritten Welt. Südamerikanische Regierungen betrachten die Volksrepublik als „strategischen Partner“.
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Gaby Weber – Sendung des Deutschlandfunks am 17. Juli 2012 – PDF [26 Seiten]

Konjunktur: Wie Regierungen ihre Prognosen frisieren

Konjunktur: Wie Regierungen ihre Prognosen frisieren

 

Regierungen rund um den Globus färben ihre Vorhersagen zu Wachstum und Staatsfinanzen systematisch schön, zeigt eine neue Studie. Der Stabilitätspakt hat in Europa alles nur noch schlimmer gemacht. Aber es gibt einen Ausweg.
[…]
In einer Ende Juli veröffentlichten Studie weist der Harvard-Professor Jeffrey Frankel jetzt nach: Rund um den Globus bauen Regierungen bei ihren Konjunkturprognosen in schöner Regelmäßigkeit Potemkin’sche Dörfer.

Der Ökonom hat für 33 Staaten und die Jahre 1999 bis 2006 die Regierungsprognosen zur Entwicklung von BIP und Staatsfinanzen mit der Wirklichkeit verglichen.
Sein Ergebnis ist klar: Regierungsamtliche Schönfärberei hat System. Sie verschätzen sich regelmäßig, und stets in die gleiche Richtung – nach oben. Die tatsächliche Entwicklung von Wachstum und Steuereinnahmen bleibt in aller Regel deutlich hinter den Erwartungen zurück.

„Der überzogene Optimismus führt dazu, dass Regierungen im Aufschwung zu wenig sparen“, schreibt Frankel in seiner Arbeit mit dem Titel
„Over-optimism in Forecasts by Official Budget Agencies and Its Implications“.

Jeffrey A. Frankel

NBER Working Paper No. 17239
Issued in July 2011
NBER Program(s):   IFM

The paper studies forecasts of real growth rates and budget balances made by official government agencies among 33 countries. In general, the forecasts are found:

(i) to have a positive average bias,

(ii) to be more biased in booms,

(iii) to be even more biased at the 3-year horizon than at shorter horizons. This over-optimism in official forecasts can help explain excessive budget deficits, especially the failure to run surpluses during periods of high output: if a boom is forecasted to last indefinitely, retrenchment is treated as unnecessary. Many believe that better fiscal policy can be obtained by means of rules such as ceilings for the deficit or, better yet, the structural deficit. But we also find:

(iv) countries subject to a budget rule, in the form of euroland’s Stability and Growth Path, make official forecasts of growth and budget deficits that are even more biased and more correlated with booms than do other countries. This effect may help explain frequent violations of the SGP. One country, Chile, has managed to overcome governments’ tendency to satisfy fiscal targets by wishful thinking rather than by action. As a result of budget institutions created in 2000, Chile’s official forecasts of growth and the budget have not been overly optimistic, even in booms. Unlike many countries in the North, Chile took advantage of the 2002-07 expansion to run budget surpluses, and so was able to ease in the 2008-09 recession.

[…]
Zu optimistische Wachstumsprognosen erlauben es Regierungen daher, unangenehmen Entscheidungen aus dem Weg zu gehen und im Stillen Fakten zu schaffen. Die Politiker brauchen nicht die Steuern zu erhöhen oder die Staatsausgaben zu senken, und sie können Debatten über höhere Staatsschulden zumindest zeitweise vermeiden.
[…]
Erstaunlich ist zudem: Feste Haushaltsregeln wie der Stabilitätspakt, die der unbegrenzten Neuverschuldung von Regierungen einen Riegel vorschieben sollen, verstärken den Hang zur Schönfärberei.
[…]
Allerdings gibt es laut Studie einen vergleichsweise einfachen Weg, um regierungsamtliches Tuning von Wachstumsprognosen zu stoppen: Ähnlich wie die Geldpolitik muss man das Erstellen der Wachstumsprognosen in unabhängige Hände legen.

Handelsblatt – 01.08.2011, 00:00 Uhr