The Power of the Mine


The Power of the Mine
A Transformative Opportunity for Sub-Saharan Africa
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(by Sudeshna Ghosh Banerjee, Zayra Romo, Gary McMahon, Perrine Toledano, Peter Robinson, and Inés Pérez Arroyo – WORLDBANKGROUP)

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Attribution—Please cite the work as follows:
Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh, Zayra Romo, Gary McMahon, Perrine Toledano, Peter Robinson, and Inés Pérez Arroyo. 2015.
The Power of the Mine: A Transformative Opportunity for Sub-Saharan Africa. Directions in Development.
Washington, DC: World Bank. doi:10.1596/978-1-4648-0292-8. License: Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 3.0 IGO.
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ISBN (paper): 978-1-4648-0292-8
ISBN (electronic): 978-1-4648-0293-5
DOI: 10.1596/978-1-4648-0292-8

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Contents
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Foreword
Acknowledgments
About the Authors
Abbreviations
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Overview
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Mining Demand for Power Is Expected to Triple by 2020 from 2000
Mining Demand for Power in 2020 Can Dominate Other Sectors in a Few Countries
The Future Is Frontier Action in the Dynamic Space between Self-Supply and Grid Supply
Complex Factors Determine Mines’ Power-Sourcing Arrangements
Self-Supply Is a Loss to Economy, Utilities, and Mines
Power–Mining Integration Can Reduce Costs, Benefit Communities, and Encourage Private-Sector Participation
Power–Mining Integration Can Add Momentum to Regional Power Integration
Technical and Financial Constraints Must Be Addressed to Facilitate Power–Mining Integration
Lessons of Experience and Risks of Engagement Must Be Carefully Considered
The Government and Policymakers Must Seize This Opportunity and Adopt Appropriate Risk-Mitigation Mechanisms to Create a Win-Win Situation for All Parties
The World Bank Group Must Support Governments’ Efforts to Harness the Synergies Offered by Mining Power Demand
References
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Chapter 1
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A High-Risk–High-Return Opportunity
The Anchor Consumer’s Role in Developing the Power Sector
Mining’s Contribution to Socioeconomic Development
Risks in Power–Mining Integration
Scope of This Report
Notes
References
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Chapter 2
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Mining Demand for Power
Mines Require Enormous Amounts of Power
Mining Demand for Power Could Triple to 23 GW by 2020
Power Demand from Mines Is Concentrated in a Group of Metals
Mining Demand for Power Will Overwhelm Nonmining Demand for a Handful of Countries
Note
Reference
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Chapter 3
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Mine Power-Sourcing Arrangements
A Typology of Arrangements
The Share of Grid Supply in Projects Has Declined
Intermediate Options Report the Largest Rise in Annual Consumption
Power-Sourcing Arrangements Have Evolved in SSA Regions
Self-Supply Imposes a Heavy Burden
Three Main Factors Determine Power-Sourcing Arrangements
References
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Chapter 4
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Opportunities and Lessons for Power–Mining Integration Power–Mining Overview
The Eight Countries Report a Range of Power-Sourcing Relationships
Group 1:
Minimal Synergies (Guinea, Mauritania, and Tanzania):
Opportunity to Use Mining as Anchor Load for Electrification
Group 2:
Medium Synergies (Mozambique, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Cameroon):
Mines as Anchor Load for Regional Power System Integration
Group 3:
High Synergies (Ghana and Zambia):
Lessons of Experience
Note
References
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Chapter 5
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Challenges to Power–Mining Integration
Three Scenarios
Constraints to Harnessing Power–Mining Synergies
A Range of Factors Facilitate Successful Integration
Risk Mitigation Instruments Exist
Notes
References
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Chapter 6
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A Way Forward
Suggestions for Policymakers and the World Bank to Promote Power–Mining Integration
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Appendix A
Maps
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Appendix B
Data Tables
References
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Appendix C
Methodology
Reference
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Boxes
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O.1 Africa Power–Mining Database 2014 — and Two Probability Scenarios
2.1 Mineral Beneficiation and Power Requirements
2.2 Africa Power–Mining Database 2014—and Two Probabilities
5.1 Cameroon’s Electricity Law
5.2 Mongolia—An Institutional Framework for Planning
5.3 South Africa—Anglo American and Its IPP
5.4 Franchisee Experience of Serving Communities in Zambia
5.5 Scope of Commercial Arrangements between Utility and Mines
5.6 Typology of Financing Arrangements
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Figures
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O.1 Mining Investment, Current and Forecast, 2000–20
O.2 Mining Demand for Power
O.3 Comparison of Mining and Nonmining Demand for Power
O.4 Range of Power-Sourcing Options for Mines
O.5 Levelized Cost Estimates of Integration Scenarios
O.6 Levelized Cost Estimates of Integration Scenarios, Tanzania
O.7 Levelized Cost Estimates of Integration Scenarios, Mozambique
O.8 Mineral Prices, 1983–2013
1.1 Unreliability of Power Supply and Coping Mechanisms
1.2 Mineral Dependence in Africa, 2010
1.3 Mining Investment, Current and Forecast, 2000–20
1.4 Regional Spending on Mineral Exploration, 2002–12
1.5 Growth Rate and HDI Improvements in Mineral- and Nonmineral-Dependent Countries
1.6 Mineral Prices, 1983–2013
1.7 Electrification Rate and Mining Contribution to GDP
2.1 Cumulative Power Requirements for Mining Operations at Stages of Beneficiation
2.2 Mining Demand for Power
2.3 Mining Power Demand for Top 10 Countries (Excluding South Africa)
2.4 Mining Demand for Power
2.5 Comparison of Mining and Nonmining Demand for Power
3.1 Evolution of Power-Sourcing Arrangements
3.2 Power-Sourcing Options
3.3 Energy Consumption
3.4 Country Composition of Annual Energy Consumption, 2020
3.5 Regional Power-Sourcing Arrangements over Time
3.6 Range of Energy Costs
3.7 Comparison of Main Power-Generation Sources in Collective Arrangements
3.8 Power Arrangements of Mining Firms Relative to the Three Main Factors
4.1 Reliability and Resource Potential
4.2 Mining Tariffs and Power Sector Long-Run Marginal Costs
4.3 Power-Sourcing Arrangements (High- and Low-Probability Projects)
4.4 Localized Simulation—Mining with Neighboring Residential and Nonresidential Demand, Guinea
4.5 Levelized Costs of Three Scenarios, Guinea
4.6 Localized Simulation—Mining with Neighboring Residential and Nonresidential Demand, Mauritania
4.7 Levelized Cost of Scenarios, Mauritania
4.8 Levelized Cost of Scenarios, Tanzania
4.9 Demand of the Smelter and Coal Projects, Mozambique
4.10 Levelized Cost of Scenarios, Mozambique
4.11 Tariffs and Long-Run Marginal Cost, Ghana and Zambia
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B5.6.1 Capitalizing Mining Revenue to Fund Other Infrastructure
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Maps
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A.1 Map of Energy Resources in Africa, by Location
A.2 Localized Simulations of Power–Mining Synergies in Guinea
A.3 Localized Simulations of Power–Mining Synergies in Mauritania
A.4 Localized Simulations of Power–Mining Synergies in Tanzania
A.5 Localized Simulations of Power–Mining Synergies in Mozambique
A.6 Cameroon Power–Mining Map
A.7 Democratic Republic of Congo Power–Mining Map
A.8 Ghana Power–Mining Map
A.9 Zambia Power–Mining Map
A.10 Projects in the Africa Power–Mining Database
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Tables
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O.1 Typology of Power-Sourcing Arrangements
1.1 Energy Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa
2.1 Installed Power Capacity Needed to Operate a Medium-Size Mine or Smelter for Selected Minerals
3.1 Typology of Power-Sourcing Arrangements
4.1 Groupings of Power–Mining Synergies for the Eight Countries Analyzed
4.2 Cost of TANESCO’s Inability to Supply the Mines, Tanzania
4.3 Mining Tariffs and Cost of Supply, Zambia
5.1 Power–Mining Integration Scenarios
5.2 Constraints to Power–Mining Integration
5.3 Power–Mining Coordination
5.4 Regulatory Mechanisms
B.1 Africa Power–Mining Database 2014
B.2 Mining Demand—High, Low Probabilities
B.3 Mining Potential by Country (Energy Needs in MW)
B.4 Coefficients (kWh/mt of Product)
B.5 Annual Energy Consumption by Country (MWh)
B.6 Average Annual Energy Consumption by Country (MWh)
B.7 Detailed Mining Projects for the Eight Case Study Countries
B.8 Socioeconomic Details for Eight Case Study Countries
B.9 Institutional Details for Eight Case Study Countries
B.10 Power Sector Statistics for Eight Case Study Countries
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Quelle: Weltbank – PDF [173 Seiten]
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Anmerkung
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Beeindruckende Chancen und Herausforderungen, welche
– Begehrlichkeiten weckt
– geostrategische Positionierungen auslöst
– orchestriert von IMF und internationalen Organisationen vielfältige Abhängigkeiten schafft
– dauerhafte ökologische Schäden auslöst
– die Handlungsspielräume demokratischer Graswurzelbewegungen stark einschränkt
– Völker ausbeutet, was am Ende des Tages das Risiko von tiefer Armut, Krankheiten/Seuchen, Radikalisierung/Aufstände und last but not least Flüchtlingswellen auslöst/verstärkt, in sich birgt
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Ihr Oeconomicus
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